No writing is required for the transfer of copyright “by operation of law”. 17 U.S.C§ 204(a). As a copyright owner, you have the option to license your copyright or transfer it to another person. For example, you can grant a company a license to reproduce your photo. Copyright holders may transfer exclusive rights to their property to another person. If you wish to transfer exclusive rights to a copyright, you must do so in writing. Otherwise, the transfer would not be valid. This written transfer must include the signature of the copyright owner. 4 The remaining part of the contract is protected in the event of a transfer.
It may decide to revoke the transferor in its entirety. It will accept such a complete and final transfer only if it is satisfied that the assignee is as reliable and solvent as the assignor. The remaining party may also decide to retain the assignor as a subsidiary debtor if the acquirer fails to enforce it. The remaining party may also choose to hold the seller jointly and severally liable with the buyer. In the latter case, the other party may assert its claim against the seller or buyer. If the other party receives a service from the seller, the seller would be entitled to a refund against the buyer. The timing of the transfer process is problematic in itself for several reasons. First, the fact that the transfer of copyright is generally conditional on publication means that it is rarely freely transferred or acquired without printing.  Second, it becomes very difficult for an author not to sign a copyright transfer agreement, as publication is associated with career advancement (publication or sub-flow/printing of publication) and possibly wasted time when the review and publication process needs to be restarted.
There are power dynamics at play that do not benefit authors and that often endanger certain academic freedoms.  This could partly explain why authors of scientific research, unlike all other industries where original creators receive fees or royalties, generally receive no payment from publishers. It also explains why many authors seem to continue to sign their rights while disagreeing with the rationale for doing so.  1 Party autonomy allows contracting parties to assign individual claims under this contract to another person. It also allows for the transfer of full status from one party to another person who has not yet been a party to this treaty. Essentially, such a transfer is a combination of the assignment of all rights and the transfer of all obligations of the assignor to the new party. Copyright is like other types of ownership because the copyright owner can transfer those rights to the owner. Copyright is transferable in whole or in part. For example, if you are a photographer, copyright would apply regardless of whether you have been paid for your services or not. In some countries, the transfer of copyright is not permitted by law and only licenses are possible.  In some countries, such as the United States and the United Kingdom, copyright transfer agreements generally must be in writing and signed by the person transferring the copyright.
In many countries, when an employee is hired to create a copyrighted work for an employer, that employer is by default the copyright owner, so no agreement on the transfer of copyright is required. In many countries that recognize moral rights, these rights cannot be transferred, and copyright transfer agreements only transfer economic rights.  Critics have stated that the agreement on the transfer of copyright in commercial scientific publishing is intended “as much to ensure the management of assets in the long term as to provide services to the academic community” because the practice seems to give the publisher the favor in a way that obviously does not benefit the authors.  Copyright transfer agreements often conflict with self-archiving practices or appear to do so due to ambiguous wording.  It is not clear whether such a transfer of copyright is generally permitted.  Funders or research institutes, public museums or art galleries may have general guidelines that state that copyright in research, content, intellectual property, employment or funds may not be transferred to third parties, commercial or otherwise. Usually, a single author signs on behalf of all authors, perhaps without their knowledge or permission.  A complete understanding of copyright transfer agreements requires a solid understanding of “legal language” and copyright in an increasingly complex licensing and copyright landscape [Note 1] [Note 2] for which there is a steep learning curve for librarians and researchers.   In many cases, authors may not even have the legal rights to transfer full rights to publishers, or agreements may have been modified to make the complete texts available in repositories or archives, regardless of the subsequent publishing contract.
 If you wish to transfer your contractual rights to another person, you must make an assignment. On the other hand, if you are only interested in transferring your contractual obligations but not your rights, you will use a delegation. After the assignment, all contractual rights are transferred to the assignee. These are exactly the same rights that the original contractual partner enjoys. If someone else copies, sells, or uses your copyrighted photo without your permission, they have infringed your copyright, which is illegal and may result in criminal and civil penalties. Even if someone buys a copy of your photo, it doesn`t mean you`ve transferred ownership of your copyright. The buyer does not have the right to reproduce your photo or publish the image. Copyright is a personal property right and is subject to the various laws and regulations of the state that govern the ownership, inheritance or transfer of personal property, as well as to the terms of the contract or commercial activity. For more information about relevant state laws, consult a lawyer. Copyright transfer agreements became common in the publishing industry after the Copyright Act of 1976 in the United States and similar legislation in other countries redefined the copyright to which the author is entitled from the moment of creation (not publication) of a work.
 This required publishers to acquire copyright from the author in order to sell or access the works, and written statements signed by the copyright owner became necessary for the transfer of copyright to be considered valid.   Critics therefore argue that copyright in scientific research is largely ineffective in the use it proposes, but that, in many cases, it has also been acquired illegally and practically violates its fundamental objective of contributing to the protection of authors and the pursuit of scientific research. .